A+ Core 2 (220-1102) Cram Notes

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4. DFRAG: The DFRAG.EXE is included with DOS6.0 and later. DEFRAG utility arranges the clusters of data on the hard drive to achieve better performance by placing all of the clusters for a given file together in a contiguous order. DEFRAG does not do any repair on your disk, and errors, if any will remain on the disk.

5. BACKUP: DOS has a backup utility since version 2.0.

6. The command "format a: /s" can be used to format the floppy disk in drive A, and at the same time make it bootable.

7. To make floppy in drive A bootable, the command SYS A: should be given.


  • It does: Loads basics Input/ Output routines for the processor

  • Default Attributes: Hidden / System/ Read Only 3. Is it required for OS Start up: YES


  • It does: Defines System File locations

  • Default Attributes: Hidden / System/ Read Only

  • Is it required for OS Start up: YES

10. To stop a single process on a Windows 7 workstation from the command line

11. You have to run the Command Prompt as Administrator. To do this just right click command prompt from "All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt" then select "Run as Administrator" on the pop-up menu.

12. On the Command Prompt, perform the following.

  • Type "task list" and press enter. It will show you a list of all the running processes.

  • Now you can End any particular process by executing the "Task kill" command. For Example, to kill Chrome just type.


Task kill /IM chrome.exe /F


/IM - Kill by Image Name

/F - Kill the process forcefully.

13. Of course, you can also do this using Task Manager without going to the command prompt.

14. You can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching to the CD ROM drive letter. To install the Recovery Console, follow these steps:

  • Insert the Windows XP CD into the CD-ROM drive.

  • Click Start, and then click Run.

  • In the Open box, type d:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons where d is the drive letter for the CD-ROM drive. In the case of 'Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, type d:\amd64\winnt32.exe /cmdcons where d is the drive letter for the CD-ROM drive.

  • A Windows Setup Dialog Box appears. The Windows Setup Dialog Box describes the Recovery Console option. To confirm the installation, click Yes.

  • Restart the computer. The next time that you start your computer, "Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" appears on the startup menu.

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