Security+ (SY0-601) Cram Notes

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4. Application, Data and Host Security

4.3 Explain the importance of data security

Data loss prevention (DLP): These are systems are designed to protect data by way of content inspection. They are meant to stop the leakage of confidential data, often concentrating on communications. There are three types of DLP systems:

  • Network-based DLP

  • Endpoint-based DLP

  • Storage-based DLP

Full Disk Encryption: This works by automatically converting data on a hard drive into a form that cannot be understood by anyone who doesn’t have the key to "undo" the conversion. Without the proper authentication key, even if the hard drive is removed and placed in another machine, the data remains inaccessible

Database Encryption: This allows securing the data as it is inserted to, or retrieved from the database. The encryption strategy can thus be part of the database design and can be related with data sensitivity and/or user privileges. Selective encryption is possible and can be done at various granularities, such as tables, columns, rows

Hardware-based Encryption

  • Data encryption: Encryption protects the confidentiality of data on servers just as it can protect the confidentiality of data on mobile devices. It’s possible to selectively encrypt individual files or entire disk volumes.

  • Mantrap and cipher lock: These are examples of physical security and they can be used to restrict access to a server room.

  • Proximity lock: This secures the Server by locking it when the sensor (say a blue-tooth device worn by the administrator) is not within a specified distance from the server.

  • Firewall: Software-based firewalls are commonly used on servers but are extremely rare on mobile devices.

  • TPM and HSM: Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) and Hardware Security Modules (HSMs) are hardware encryption devices.

5. Access Control and Identity Management

5.1 Explain the function and purpose of authentication services

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS): It provides centralized administration of dial-up, VPN, and wireless authentication and can be used with EAP and 802.1X.

Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System (TACACS ): It is remote authentication protocol used more often in UNIX networks. In UNIX, the TACACS service is known as the TACACS daemon. The newer and more commonly used implementation of TACACS is called TACACS+. It is not backward compatible with TACACS. TACACS+, and its predecessor XTACACS, were developed by Cisco. TACACS+ uses inbound port 49. TACACS and XTACACS are not commonly seen anymore. The two common protocols used today are RADIUS and TACACS+.

Kerberos: Kerberos is basically an authentication protocol that uses secret-key cryptography for secure authentication. In Kerberos, all authentication takes place between clients and servers. The name Kerberos comes from Greek mythology; it is the three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades. It was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Kerberos require that the time sources are approximately in synchronization (with in 5 minutes) with each other. However, with recent revisions of Kerberos software, this rule has become flexible.

Some of the features of Kerberos authentication system:

  • Uses client-server based architecture.

  • Kerberos server, referred to as KDC (Key Distribution Ceter) implements the Authentication Service (AS) and the Ticket Granting Service (TGS).

  • The term "application server" generally refers to Kerberized programs that clients communicate with using Kerberos tickets for authentication purpose. For example, the Kerberos telnet daemon (telnetd) is an example of an application server.

When the user wants to talk to a Kerberized service, he uses the TGT to talk to the Ticket Granting Service (TGS, also runs on the KDC). The TGS verifies the user's identity using the TGT and issues a ticket for the desired service.

The TGT ensures that a user doesn't have to enter in their password every time they wish to connect to a Kerberized service. The TGT usually expires after eight hours. If the Ticket Granting Ticket is compromised, an attacker can only masquerade as a user until the ticket expires.

The following are the important properties of Kerberos:

  • It uses symmetric encryption

  • Tickets are time stamped

  • Passwords are not sent over the network

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol): It contains the directory for a network and allows for a single point of user management of that directory.

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