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Network+(N10-005) Cram Notes

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   VLAN and VTP Configuration and Troubleshooting:

When you are configuring VLANs and trunks on a switched network, the following types of configuration errors are most likely to be encountered:

  • Native VLAN mismatches

  • Trunk mode mismatches

  • VLANs and IP Subnets config issues

  • Allowed VLANs on trunks – Configuring a trunk route for allowed VLANs.

Things to remember in configuring VTP:

1. VTP is a Layer 2 messaging protocol. It carries configuration information throughout a single domain

2. VTP Modes are

  • Server : Create, modify, or delete VLANs (This is the deafult vtp mode on a switch)

  • Client : Can't create, change, or delete VLANs

  • Transparent : Used when a switch is not required to participate in VTP, but only pass the information to other switches

3. VTP domain is common to all switches participating in VTP

4. Pruning is a technique where in VLANs not having any access ports on an end switch are removed from the trunk to reduce flooded traffic

5. Configuration revision number is a 32-bit number that indicates the level of revision for a VTP packet. Each time the VTP device undergoes a VLAN change, the config revision is incremented by one.

Typical VTP Configuration commands on a Cisco switch are given below:

SW1#vlan database

SW1(vlan)#vtp mode (Server/Client/Transparent)

SW1(vlan)#vtp domain <name>

SW1(vlan)#vtp password <password>

SW1(vlan)#vtp pruning

2.2 Given a scenario, install and configure a wireless network.

   When installing and configuring a wireless network, you need to remember the following:

  • Driver Compatibility - It is important to make sure that you have installed the correct device driver for your wireless network adapter.

  • Low Signal Strength - There are a number of factors that can cause the signal of your access point to deteriorate and the performance of your network to fall under par. Practically any appliance that operates on the same frequency level (2.4 GHz) as 802.11b or 802.11g can cause interference with your wireless network. Be sure to keep cordless phones, microwaves and other electrical equipment at least 1m away from the access point. Try changing channels on the access point and test it out on one of the clients.

  • Access Point Location - You may also want to try changing the position of your access point antenna to improve performance.

   Installing a repeater for a performance boost:

If you’re looking for a boost you can always choose to install a repeater. The job of a repeater is to receive the signal, regenerate it and rebroadcast it therefore extending the range of your wireless network. This would sit somewhere between your Access Point and your wireless client.

   Changing the Antenna:

Changing the antenna of your access point can increase signal range and overall performance. Typical access points come with a 2dB or 4dB gain antenna but there are one’s available with higher gain. Antenna gain is measured in dBi (decibels-isotropic) which basically means how powerful the antenna is and how far it can provide a signal. .

   There are three main categories of antennas:

  • Omni-directional - Omni-directional antennas radiate RF in a fashion similar to the way a table or floor lamp radiates light. They are designed to provide general coverage in all directions.

  • Semi-directional - Semi-directional antennas radiate RF in a fashion similar to the way a wall sconce is designed to radiate light away from the wall or the way a street lamp is designed to shine light down on a street or a parking lot, providing a directional light across a large area. Yagi antenna is an example of this type of antennas.

  • Highly-directional - Highly-directional antennas radiate RF in a fashion similar to the way a spotlight is designed to focus light on a flag or a sign. Each type of antenna is designed with a different objective in mind. Phased array antenna is an example of this type of antenna.

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