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 A+ Practical Application (220-802) Cram Notes


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2. Security

2.1 Apply and use common prevention methods

Each Virtual Machine is like a separate platform, and the host PC is transparent to the end user. If the VM is infected with virus the end user may treat the virus same as in a normal PC. There is no need to shut down the host operating system

2.2 Compare and contrast common security threats

1. Software is considered malware (malicious software) based on how the software is intended to be used. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, dishonest adware, and other malicious and unwanted software

a. A boot sector virus stays resident by infecting the boot sector of the computer

b. A Master boot record (MBR) virus infect the first physical sector of all affected disks

c. File viruses either replace or attach themselves to executable files, and most commonly found virus.

d. Macro virus attaches itself to documents in the form of macros.

e. Memory viruses are viruses that execute and stay resident in memory. Trojan Horse is an example of memory virus. A Trojan is not a virus. The principal variation between a Trojan horse, or Trojan, and a virus is that Trojans don’t spread themselves. Trojan horses disguise themselves as valuable and useful software available for download on the internet. Trojan may work as a client software on your computer communicating with the Trojan server over the Internet.

f. A browser hijacker is a form of malware, spyware or virus that replaces the existing internet browser home page, error page, or search page with its own.[1] These are generally used to force hits to a particular website.

2. Anti-virus update files are traditionally called as “Definitions”.

3. Possible reasons for slow running of a computer may include insufficient memory, viruses and Trojan horses, too many TSRs (Terminate and Stay Resident) running at the same time, etc. Ensure that your computer has sufficient memory, hard disk space, and anti-virus software installed (particularly if connected to the Internet).

2.3 Implement security best practices to secure a workstation

1. Encrypting File System (EFS) keeps your documents safe from intruders who might gain unauthorized physical access to your sensitive stored data by stealing your laptop or Zip disk, or by other means.

2. Anti-virus software, and Spyware software can be used to clear malicious programs from a computer. Also, note that you need to install up-to-date Service Packs, and patches.

3. Never store passwords in plain text files.

4. Never write down the username and passwords on a paper if done so destroy it after memorizing it.  

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