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 A+ Essentials (220-801) Cram Notes

   

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1.6 Differentiate among various CPU types and features and select the appropriate cooling method  

Processor   Socket type   Register Data Bus   Address Bus  
8088   DIP 16 bit  8 bit   20 bit  
80286 LLC/PGA/PLCC 16 bit  16 bit  24 bit  
80386SX PGA 32 bit 16 bit  24 bit
80386DX PGA 32 bit 32 bit   32 bit  
80486SX PGA 32 bit 32 bit   32 bit  
80486DX PGA/SQFP 32 bit 32 bit   32 bit  
Pentium Socket 5 SPGA/ Socket 7 SPGA. 64 bit 64 bit  32 bit  
Pentium Pro Socket 8 SPGA 64 bit 64 bit  32 bit  
Pentium II   SEC Slot 1      
Pentium III SECC-2 / PPGA or FC-PGA      
Pentium IV   socket 423/socket 478/ socket 775   64 bit 64 bit  36 bit*
Pentium Dual Core Socket 775 (LGA775)   64 bit 64 bit  64 bit*  
Pentium Quad Core Socket 775 (LGA775) 64 bit 64 bit  64 bit*

   Hyperthreading

a. It is an Intel invention for their processor cores that allows the CPU to present the Operating System with two "virtual" CPUs, each with its own set of resources.  This new technology allows multiple processing threads to run in parallel on a single chip. The Operating System and associated hardware need to support hyper-threading for using this feature. For each processor core that is physically present, the operating system addresses two virtual or logical cores, and shares the workload between them when possible. The main function of hyper-threading is to decrease the number of dependent instructions on the pipeline.

b. Requirements for the HT enabled system:

  • Intel Pentium 4 processor at 3.06 GHz or higher

  • An Intel® chipset that supports HT Technology

  • System BIOS that supports HT Technology and has it enabled

  • An operating system that includes optimizations for HT Technology

c. Only Operating Systems Windows XP and above support Hyper-threading.

   File system

a. FAT :Under FAT file system, the maximum size of a cluster is 32 KB and the maximum number of clusters is 65536. Therefore, the maximum size of a partitions is the number of clusters multiplied by the max size of the cluster, which is equivalent to 2 GB. Remember that 1 KB = 1024 bytes.

b. NTFS: New Technology File System (NTFS) is a file system that was introduced by Microsoft to provide superior features like encryption, compression, and user permissions. NTFS is the primary file system used in Microsoft's Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 operating systems.

c. You can't apply file level permissions on a FAT file system. Only NTFS allows file permissions. Remember that the NTFS file permissions are always in effect to all users and processes.

d. Windows 98 and Windows 95 OEM Release 2 support FAT32. Note that Windows NT does not support FAT32. NT supports only FAT16 and NTFS. Windows 2000 supports FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS.

e. DOS standard FAT16 support drives up to 2 GB. FAT32 supports drives up to 2TB (Terabytes).

   Intel socket  

a. Popular Intel socket types include LGA 1156/Socket H, LGA775, LGA 1155/1156, rPGA 988A, Socket G1, etc. Popular AMD socket types include LGA 940, Socket FM1, Socket AM3, Socket G34, etc.  

b. Socket LGA775 motherboards run Intel's Celeron (single-core), Pentium 4 (single-core), Pentium D (dual-core) and Core 2 Duo (dual-core) desktop processors.  

c. LGA775: Intel Pentium 4, Intel Pentium D, Intel Celeron, Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad, Intel Xeon  

d. 775: Intel Pentium 4, Intel Celeron  

e. 1156: : Intel Core i7, Intel Core i5, Intel Core i3, Intel Xeon, Intel Pentium, Intel Celeron  

f. 1366: Intel Core i7 (900 series), Intel Xeon (35xx, 36xx, 55xx, 56xx series)  

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